Stuff for CM140.HTML

Comparison Greenland-Antarctica ice cores
(for Co2 and Temperature)
cm140.html;   cm141.html

NEEM=North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ice core
Please note: Ion Concentration is in (ng/g) [nano grams/grams] units [Schüpbach et al, 2018], or parts per billion (ppb).

  • Alley, 2000 Alley R.B.: Ice-core evidence of abrupt climate changes , PNAS, 97,4, 1331-1334, 2000. 10.1073/pnas.97.4.1331
  • Ahn and Brook, 2014. Ahn J. and Brook E.J.: Siple Dome ice reveals two modes of millennial CO2 change during the last ice age, Nature Communications, 5, 3723, 2014.
  • Anklin et al., 1995 Anklin M., Barnola J-M, Schwander J., Stauffer B. and Raynaud D.: Processes affecting the CO2 concentrations measured in Greenland ice , Tellus, 47B, 461-470, 1995. Full text available at:
  • Barlow et al., 2015. J. M. Barlow, P.I. Palmer, L.M. Bruhwiler and P. Analysis of CO2 mole fraction data: first evidence of large-scale changes in CO2 uptake at high northern latitudes , Atmos.Chem.Phys., 15, 13739-13758, 2015.
  • Barnola et al., 1995. Barnola J.M., Anklin M., Porkeron J., Raynaud D., Schwander J., Stauffer B.: CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice, Tellus, 47B, 264-272, 1995.
  • Bender M.L., Sowers, T.A., Dickson M.L., Orchardo J., Grootes P.M., Mayewski P.A., Meese, D.A. : Climate correlations between Greenland and Antarctica during the past 100,000 years., Nature, 372(6507), 663-666, 1994. (Abstract)
  • Bond et al, 1997 Gerard Bond, William Showers, Maziet Cheseby, Rusty Lo Peter Almasi, Peter deMenocal, Paul Priore, Heidi Cullen, Irka Hajdas, Georges Bonani: A Pervasive Millennial-Scale Cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and Glacial Climates , Science, 278, 1257-1266, 1997.
  • Ludecke et al., 2015 Horst-J. Lüdecke, Carl O. Weiss, Xinhua Zhao and Xueshang Feng: Centennial Cycles Observed in Temperature Data from Antarctica to Central Europe , Polarforschung , 85,2, 179-181, 2015. doi:10.2312/polfor.2016.015
  • Mayewski et al.,1997. Paul A. Mayewski, Loren D. Meeker, Mark S. Twickler, Sallie Whifiow, Qinzhao Yang, W. Berry Lyons and Michael Prentice: Major features and forcing of high-latitude northern hemisphere atmospheric circulation using a 110,000- year-long glaciochemical series , JGR, 102, C12, 26345-26366, 1997. (data not used)
  • Smith et al., 1997 H.J. Smith, M. Wahlen, D. Mastroianni, K.C. Taylor The CO2 concentration of air trapped in GISP2 ice from the Last Glacial Maximum-Holocene transition , GRL, 24/1, 1-4, 1997.
  • Xin Hua Zhao and Xue Shang Feng: Correlation between solar activity and the local temperature of Antarctica during the past 11,000 years , Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 122, 26-33,2015. (Abstract)
  • Schupbach et al., 2018 Schupbach S. and other 50: Greenland records of aerosol source and atmospheric lifetime changes from the Eemian to the Holocene , Nature Communications, 9:1476, 2018.
    Added after publication: to be read ..
  • Stallinga & Khmelinskii, 2013 . Peter Stallinga, Igor Khmelinskii: Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide arXiv:1311.2165v1, 2013.
  • Uemura et al., 2018 Ryu Uemura, Hideaki Motoyama, Valérie Masson-Delmotte, Jean Jouzel, Kenji Kawamura, Kumiko Goto-Azuma, Shuji Fujita, Takayuki Kuramoto, Motohiro Hirabayashi, Takayuki Miyake, Hiroshi Ohno, Koji Fujita, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Yoshinori Iizuka, Shinichiro Horikawa, Makoto Igarashi, Keisuke Suzuki, Toshitaka Suzuki & Yoshiyuki Fujii: Asynchrony between Antarctic temperature and CO2 associated with obliquity over the past 720,000 years , Nature Communications, 9-961, 2018. Data available at:
  • Weissbach et al., 2016 S. Weißbach1 , A. Wegner, T. Opel, H. Oerter, B. M. Vinther, and S. Kipfstuhl: Spatial and temporal oxygen isotope variability in northern Greenland – implications for a new climate record over the past millennium, Clim. Past.,12, 171-188, 2016 , doi:10.5194/cp-12-171-2016

        An interesting article by Renee Hannon appeared in WUWT Jan 7, 2020. It shows that the long-considered failed CO2 concentration in Greenland ice cores (GRIP, GISP2, ...) presents a real difference with respect to the Antarctica cores. This article must be read. From the same author see also: (HadCRUT4 wavelets analysis) and the 2020 WUWT post at
    and, at his Linkedin profile: (where he compares the last three Interglacial periods named Warm I,II,III).

  • (WUWT Paleoclimate Reference Page)
  • (Middleton 2019: resolution and Hockey Stick))
  • See also (Video)
  • and (Andy May, 2015)

    Plots, Figures
    δ18O North & Sud (pdf) (png) Greenland and Antarctica
    Depth-Age scale (pdf) (png) Used parabola~ 300 yr lead
    CO2 GISP only (pdf) (png) Greenland CO2 andBond events
    CO2 GISP LOMB (pdf) (png) Greenland CO2 Spectrum
    CO2 North & Sud (pdf) (png) Greenland andAntarctica
    CO2 Extended (pdf) (png) CO2 series use the same data
    CO2 NS Modern (pdf) (png) Comparison: North,South & fit of modern series
    CO2 NS Modern Zoom (pdf) (png) as above, enlargement
    EPICA CO2 (pdf) (png) AntarcticaComposite
    EPICA CO2 LOMB (pdf) (png) AntarcticaComposite
    δ18O & CO2 (pdf) (png) All data4 series
    δ18O & CO2 (pdf) (png) Like a cartoonsmooth 20pt
    δ18O Ca,H2O2,NH4 (pdf) (png) Comparing Shapes
    LOMB of δ18O (pdf) (png) Comparing Spectra
    LOMB of δ18O freq. (pdf) (png) Frequency: compare to fig.2Huybers (2022)
    LOMB of Ca, NH4 (pdf) (png)
    δ18O & ions (pdf) (png) Smooth 10 pointsNEEM-ion
    δ18O & ions (pdf) (png) Smooth 30 pointsNEEM-ion30
    δ18O & ions (pdf) (png) Smooth 50 pointsNEEM grip8-ion
    δ18O & ions (pdf) (png) d180+3 ionsNEEM grip4-ion
    δ18O & ions (pdf) (png) d180+2 ionsNEEM grip3-ion
    δ18O & ions (pdf) (png) d180+3 ionsNEEM grip4-20
    δ18O & ions (pdf) (png) d180+2 ionsNEEM grip3-20
    δ18O Gisp2,Ngrip,Vostok (pdf) (png) Greenlanddeltao
    δ18O Gisp2,Ngrip,Vostok (pdf) (png) Zoom, 50 Ka'sdeltao50
    δ18O et al.,Gisp (pdf) (png) 0-40 Ka, Greenland Deltasgd.txt
    δ18O et al.,Gisp (pdf) (png) 0-40 Ka, Greenland Deltasgd.txt last 3
    δ18O et al.,Gisp (pdf) (png) 0-40 Ka, Greenland Elementsgel.txt
    δ18O et al.,Gisp (pdf) (png) 0-40 Ka, Greenland Elementsgel.txt last 3
    ---- -------------
    GISP2 CO2.txtGreenland, original no age, only depth
    Depth-Age Transf..txtfrom Smith et al., 1997 Table 1
    GISP2 CO2.txtGreenland, in Kyr BP
    GISP2 CO2 LOMB.outGreenland, CO2 Spectrum
    VOSTOK δ18O.txtAntarctica
    GISP2 δ18O.txtGreenland
    Antarctic CO2.txtComposite
    Antarctic CO2 LOMB.outSpectrum
    EPICA Antar. CO2.txtComposite
    Barrow CO2 76-18.txtModern series
    South Pole CO2 76-18.txtModern series
    GISP2 δ18O.txt
    GRIP Ca.txt
    GRIP H2O2.txt
    GRIP NH4.txt
    GRIP Ca MEM.out
    GRIP NH4 MEM.out
    NGRIP δ18O.txtOriginal
    NGRIP δ18O.txtUsed here
    Greenland Deltas.txtOriginal PANGAEA repeated depths
    Greenland Deltas.txtUsed here Unique depths
    Greenland Elements.txtUsed here

    co2tx.bon, co2sn.bon, co2sne.bon, deltao.bon, deltao50.bon,
    co2.bon, co2a-lomb.bon, co2sud.bon, co2ext.bon, d-a.bon, epicaco2.bon, grip-ca.bon, grip-lomb.bon,
    grip4-ion.bon, grip3-ion.bon, grip8-ion.bon, grip-ion30.bon,
    neem-ion30.bon, neem-ion.bon, gd.bon, gd2.bon, gel.bon, gel2.bon,
    co2.f, gel.f,
    Page Written: January 8, 2020,        Last Updated: